Let's talk OT...

11. Jul, 2017

GENERAL INFORMATION & SYMPTOMS

 Wild CONCENTRATION Hehe

Concentration is always a controversial topic with a lot of different opinions.  There is a lot of information available on concentration and this page is by no means comprehensive.

The school environment creates multiple challenges for children with attention deficit disorder since they need to - sit still, listen quietly, pay attention, follow instructions, concentrate. These are the very things that children with ADD/ADHD struggle with.

We differentiate between three sub-types namely:

  • Predominantly inattentive presentation: sufficient inattentive but insufficient hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present.
  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation: sufficient hyperactive-impulsive symptoms inattentive but insufficient inattentive symptoms are present.
  • Combined presentation: Individuals who showed at least 6 inattentive and 6 hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.

 Core symptoms (DSM-V)

The 9 inattentive symptoms

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in  schoolwork, work, or during other activities.
  • Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school work, chores, or duties in the work place.
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (e.g., difficulty managing sequential tasks; difficulty keeping materials and belongings in order; messy, disorganized work; has poor time management; fails to meet deadlines).
  • Often avoids or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort.
  • Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities.
  • Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.

The 9 hyperactive-impulsive symptoms

  • Often fidgets with or taps hands or squirms in seat.
  • Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
  • Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is inappropriate.
  • Often unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly.
  •  Is often "on the go" acting as if "driven by a motor".
  • Often talks excessively.
  • Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
  • Often has difficulty awaiting turn (e.g., while waiting in line).
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others.

 

Individuals younger than 17 must display at least 6 of 9 symptoms to warrant a diagnosis of ADHD. Clinical experience has shown that the most effective treatment for ADD/ADHD is a combination of dietary intervention, medication, the necessary supplementation, therapy and/or counselling to learn coping skills and adaptive behaviours, as well as academic accommodations for children and students with ADD/ADHD.

 

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PARENTS

1. General parent guidance

  • Self-image & motivation motto: Just keep on trying your best and never give up.
  • Discuss and set routines, tasks, rules and subsequent consequences.
  • First time club rewards system.  Make a rewards chart with no more than 3 – 5 expectations/ tasks – he can for example get a star if he completes it without you reminding him and then after for example 10 stars he can choose a reward. It can be for each star he gets R1, or he can play 1 minute on IPAD for every star, or he can choose a family activity he wants to do for example drink milkshake with family et cetera.
  • Guidelines on disciplining child. Discipline must be realistic and achievable for the child and the parent – so rather use shorter discipline time and be consistent.
  • Rather give “Do this” instructions instead of “Don’t” instructions for example “Keep your feet on the floor” instead of “Don’t climb in the tree.”
  • Traffic light – Red: Stop everything; Orange: Continue slowly, think and plan activity; Green: Safe, free to continue.
  • Instruction: Make physical contact, eye contact, let him repeat instruction.
  • Deep pressure is calming: hands on head and press down, chair push-ups, horse kicks, tight hugs, wheel barrow walking, trampoline et cetera.
  • Emotions: All emotions are allowed but not all actions.  Verbalise child’s emotions and give acceptable choices to express their emotions.
  • Sleep routines are very important.
  • Limit technology use.
  • Set good examples at home.
  • Encourage socialisation: invite a class mate over, therefore they build up healthy social relationships that can be carried over to the classroom.
  • Give acceptable choices in everyday tasks.

2. Work speed & completion of tasks

  • Set routines & let him know if it’s going to change.
  • Give set amount of time to finish work, do extra work if finished before that time.
  • Use of two clocks or egg timer.
  • Motor planning: Break tasks down to smaller instructions, ask child to explain process.

3. Read a lot.

  • Read with child so that he can get the right example.
  • Ask questions about the story / pictures.
  • Ask him to repeat the story.

4. Try fidget toys like disc’o’sit, tangles, fidget foot bands to help him with modulation and concentration.

5. Look at supplements and diet in general.

6. Monitor concentration difficulties & make appointment at developmental paediatrician/ neurologist if concentration problems continue after diet changes and supplements are implemented.  It’s important to remember that a child’s concentration varies according to his interest in the activity and to the amount of distractions around him.  This is some of the reasons why concentration is usually more of a problem at school as at home.  The classroom teacher can therefore usually give a good record of your child’s concentration.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE TEACHER

1. Seating in the classroom:

  • Do not place learner directly in front of the window or door.
  • Seat the learner where possible in the front and in the middle of the class (otherwise on the side) or in front of the teacher's desk.
  • Seat the learner if possible next to a quiet student.
  • Make use of a disc'o'sit (rubber cushion).

2. As a general rule of thumb, a child should be able to sustain their focus or attention for 2 to 3 minutes for every year of life, so a 3 year old should concentrate for approximately 6 to 9 minutes et cetera.

3. You might have heard the saying: “If your bum is numb, your brain is dumb.” Children need movement to stay focused.  Recent research suggests that physical activity increases the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine; these chemicals play a key role in sharpening focus and increasing attention.

4. Quick movement breaks between activities for example:

  • Use a signal like a bell or whistle, let the whole class stand up, do an action and then quickly sit down.
  • 5 chair push-ups.
  • Clap a rhythmic pattern and get the children to repeat it.
  • Use movement songs and rhymes, especially songs that you can cross over the body’s midline.
  • Play a quick round of Simon says.
  • Get them to look at the room and memorise where things are, send them away and move one object and they must come back and identify what/who was moved.
  • Get learners to close their eyes and listen to all the noises they can hear and ask them to identify the noises.
  • Make use of midline crossing activities for example cross over clapping pattern, clap leg with opposite hand et cetera.

5. Deep pressure is usually calming, let learners put their hands on their heads and push down on their heads for 10 counts and then stretch their arms up or use chair push-ups.

6. Traffic light system.  Red: Stop everything; Orange: Continue slowly, think and plan activity; Green: Safe, free to continue.

7. Try to make eye contact or physical contact for example holding shoulder while giving instruction.

8. Set up reward system if it is not in place yet for example get a star if work completed. He can get a reward if everything has a star at the end of the week.

9. Have an unobtrusive cue set up with the student, such as a touch on the shoulder or placing a sticky note on the student’s desk, to remind the student to stay on task. Therefore the learner are not getting excessive attention in the classroom, but is still reminded to stay focused on the task.

10. Use of fidgets like disc’o’sit, tangles, stress balls, fidget foot band, playing with tubing, pipe cleaners, doodling, chewing gum et cetera. Fidgets are mindless activities you can do while working on a primary task. We’re not talking about wriggling in your seat - fidgeting is more intentional.

11. Beat the clock - set a timer or use an egg timer.

12. If possible, work on the most difficult material early in the day.

13. Use visuals: charts, pictures, colour coding.

14. Break down large tasks in smaller parts.

15. Set up “safe zone” in classroom – place where learner can go when over stimulated till he gains control over himself.  A small tent might be nice but anything like a pillow with maybe a teddy and some fidget toys will be perfect. It might be disruptive in the beginning but work wonders in the long run.  Teach children to recognise symptoms of over stimulation so that they can go to safe zone before they have a meltdown. Set up definite rules for example quite in safe zone, timer for how long they can stay et cetera.

10 STEPS BEFORE MEDICATION

Please note that ADHD refers to Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity.

This article gives a broad approach to what can be done for children with ADHD before commencing medication.  Bear in mind that there is a definite place for medication in the treatment of ADHD, and it has helped many a child through a crisis.  However there is a lot more that can be done to help these children before commencing the drug route.  Genetic and environmental factors are some of the factors to be considered.

Step 1: Hydration

Most people are chronically dehydrated simply because they don’t drink enough water:

•Drink filtered water

•Use water from glass or stainless steel containers.

•Avoid sterile or distilled water, avoid plastic bottles

•Avoid sweetened fruit juices, and eliminate colas.

The bottom line is: drink more water.

Step 2: Methylation

Homocysteine levels provide a measure of the body’s methylation process which is the body’s ability to maintain chemical balance.

•High homocysteine levels can affect the brain contributing to depression, poor concentration, poor memory, sleeping problems, mood swings and anxiety.

•There is a strong genetic component, especially in the SA population.

Treatment requires B-vitamins: Folic acid B3, B6, and B12.

Step 3: Glycation

Stable sugar levels are the key to brain health.  Glucose is the most important brain nutrient but too much of it damages nerve cells.  It can cause inflammation in the brain and this is called glycation.

•Around 50% of nutrient intake should be complex, slow releasing, and carbohydrates.

•According to research excess white sugar and refined carbohydrates can lead to low IQ, bad behaviour, depression, eating disorders and learning disabilities.

Normalise sugar levels by excluding most sweetened breakfast cereals, sweetened fruit juices, colas, fizzy drinks, biscuits and high energy sweets.  Eliminate food chemicals and preservatives. More than a 1000 of these compounds have been indicated as active anti-nutrients.  Natural is always betterSee good carbs, bad carbs.

Step 4: Lipidation

The human brain, on average, consists of 80% water.  The dry weight of the brain is 60% fat; and these should be good fats rather than bad fats.  Research shows that what you think and what you feel totally depends upon the amount and type of fats eaten on a daily basis.

•Trans fatty acids are the really bad fats for the brain.  They are chemically altered fats and become embedded in the cell membranes.

•Hydrogenated fats are bad.

•Cut down drastically on all bad fats.

•Saturated fats are important but should be less than 10% of the total fat intake.

Omega 3 is a good fat and provides EPA and DHA.

Symptoms of insufficient good fats include:

•Chronic thirst, dry unmanageable hair, brittle soft nails, ear and sinus infections, memory and concentration problems as well as vision problems.

At least have 2 – 3 fatty fishy meals a week.

Step 5: Supplements

We are not getting sufficient nutrients from the foods we eat.  Organic supplements are best as they come from whole food products.

Supplementation should include:

•Most important: a well-balanced multivitamin in the morning.

•B vitamins (including folic acid) taken morning and evening.

•Lecithin E (Lecithin combined with Vit E).  Phospholipids improve insulation around brain cells.  Can use up to 5g per day.

•Omega 3 - EFA’s.  High dosages to be divided into morning and night servings.

•Antioxidant supplementation - not enough antioxidants in fruit and vegetables alone.

•Calcium Magnesium and Vit D – divided dosage morning and evening.

Supplements do not replace healthy eating, they are added to the diet.  Supplements are not medication – they are what the body needs to grow and maintain.

Step 6: Allergies

Children are eating up to 5kg artificial additives every year.  These can cause reactions in the body and children with ADHD are 7 times more likely to have reactions.  90% of children with ADHD are likely to have food allergies. The most common foods can be tested by using the IGg food sensitivity test profile.

Step 7: High Stress Levels

These are linked to the inability to adapt and cope with situations. Children with ADHD are more likely to be in trouble with parents, teachers and others.

•This causes excessive stress which affects adrenal hormone levels which also affects brain function – especially forgetfulness.

Help these children with:

•psychological support

•exercise

•avoiding intake of sugars, refined carbohydrates

•well-structured home environment

•using natural stress relief products eg GABA

Step 8: Sleep Hygiene

Adequate sleep is vitally important for brain health.  Not getting enough sleep is another stressor to the body.

Have a good sleep routine:

•Regular bedtimes – going to sleep and waking up at regular hours.

•Have regular hours of sleep

•Keep sugar levels even.

•Ensure that your balance of vitamins and minerals contain B6 and zinc

•Take regular exercise

•Use natural sleep agents – e.g. take Calcium-Magnesium supplements at dinner time.

•Limit technology before sleeping time.

Step 9: Colon Health

A healthy colon – a healthy child – a healthy brain.

There are 10x more bacteria in the large intestine than there are cells in the body.  Problems arise when these flora are abnormal. We need the correct colon bacteria as well as adequate water for normal colon function.

Leaky gut syndrome can cause food sensitivities.

90% of serotonin is manufactured in the colon.  Insufficient serotonin can cause depression and anxiety.

Chronic constipation can be auto intoxicating and lead to many problems. Regular bowel movement and a normal gastro-colic reflex is important for long term colon health.

Children need colon training:

•Teach regular bowel habits.

•Need enough water

•Less refined sugars and refined carbohydrates.

•Have enough omega 3 EFAs and supplements

•Regular exercise

•Probiotics – Prebiotics and digestive enzymes.

Step 10: Psychology and Behaviour

ADHD is a stressor and a challenge affecting every area of a child’s life.  Be very careful with labelling affected children.  Remember they are very special individuals.

•Use behaviour therapy to change certain behaviours by increasing the frequency of acceptable behaviour with rewards and positive feedback.

•Consider your attitude to children with ADHD.

•What is your belief system and what is that of your children.

•What confidence do you have in children with ADHD.

We raise these children with no self-belief and no confidence, and forget the exceptional qualities and talents of individuals with ADHD.

Conclusion

When using their creativity and natural drive ADHD people are often more adapted to the modern day lifestyle, often coping better in the work place.  Others are starting to see them in different ways which acknowledge their strengths, and new labels are emerging such as “Latent Entrepreneur Personality Type”, acknowledging that ADHD is not a deficit or a disease.

Changing a few things in the life of ADHD kids can prevent the damaging labels, maintain self-esteem, and help them to be normal well-functioning adults.

Extracted from a talk by Dr Hein Badenhorst

 

 

CONCENTRATION & FIDGET TOYS

Recent research suggests that the body affects the brain as much as the brain affects the body. In his recent book, Spark, John Ratey, M.D., shows that physical activity increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Both chemicals play a key role in sharpening focus and increasing attention.

It’s true that many people are successful only when they do one thing at a time, but for adults and children with concentration difficulties, the opposite is usually true.  Children with concentration difficulties may actually concentrate, focus and stay better on task with a little foot-tapping, gum-chewing or fidgeting.

Intentional fidgets allow you and your child to self-regulate in a controlled, constructive manner. An effective fidget doesn’t distract you from your primary task because it is something you don’t have to think about. 

Experiment with a variety of strategies and encourage your child to try different fidgets.  Here are just two examples:

Tangle

Tangles are based on the concept of infinity and continuous motion. Technically, it is a series of 90-degree curves, connected and able to pivot at each joint. It has no beginning and no end - just continuous motion!

A Tangle is more than just a toy.  This "Magic in the Motion’ that you feel when you play with a Tangle is truly therapeutic and calming to the soul!  Tangles have endless uses and serve a variety of different purposes. It can be a puzzle, a movable sculpture, a desktop toy, a fidget, a brain tool or an anti-stress device.  The possibilities are limitless!

What do Tangles do?

  • Tangles help with self-regulation and therefore have a calming effect.
  • Tangles encourage focus, attention and active listening.
  • Tangles offer a hands-on experience.
  • Tangles are fun to look at, fun to hold, fun to twist, turn and manipulate.
  • Tangles bring out creativity and imagination.
  • Tangles are silent and therefore do not disturb or disrupt others.
  • Tangles are appealing to all ages, to boys and girls alike and even adults.
  • Tangles are safe, reusable and affordable.

When is the best time to use a tangle as a concentration aid?

  • During circle time when the teacher is reading story and children need to sit still and listen.
  • While teacher is explaining the next work and children need to sit still and focus on the explanation and instructions.
  • When finished with work and waiting for next instruction from the teacher.
  • At home while studying.

CLASSIC TANGLES AVAILABLE @ R30 (COURIER NATION WIDE)

Fidget foot bands

Fidget Foot Bands are a continuous loop of stretchy band you place around the chair legs to keep fidgeting feet busy.  Kids have fun and stay more focused as they push, pull, or kick these stretchy fidgets with their feet.  These one-piece quiet foot fidgets are great for classrooms and home.  It is stretchy and can fit around different size chairs.

How to use it:

  • Place fidget foot band around the front legs of any chair.
  • Child place feet behind the foot band and pull forward against the resistance.  This keeps busy feet occupied and provide deep pressure.  Deep pressure is known to have a calming effect and therefore helps to keep them focused.

 FIDGET FOOTBANDS AVAILABLE @ R45 (COURIER NATION WIDE)

BIBLIOGRAPHY & RESOURCES

11. Jul, 2017


Vraag: My seun sukkel met lees en ken nog nie al sy klanke nie. Dis elke dag 'n gestoei om hom sover te kry om sy leesles te lees en hy begin nou sy les soos 'n rympie aframmel, maar kan nie individuele woorde lees as ek dit vir hom wys nie. 

Question: My son really struggles with reading and doesn't know all of his sounds. It's really difficult to get him to read his reading lesson. He tends to memories the piece, but can't read individual words if I show it to him.

Baie kinders word so geintimideer deur selfs net die gedagte aan lees en dit bring dadelik 'n angs reaksie wat maak dat hul probeer om die situasie te vermy of so vinnig as moontlik verby te kry. Soos hier bo gelees kan word gebruik hul baie keer ander vaardighede soos hul geheue en sodoende word die probleem nie altyd vroegtydig opgemerk nie. Dit is dus baie belangrik dat lees steeds genotvol moet wees!

Verder is dit baie belangrik dat jou kind die alfabet klanke foneties moet aanleer, andersinds maak dit die lees van woorde baie moeilik.

Aktiwiteite & speletjies:

Knip klomp letters en later woorde uit. Sorg dat daar 'n klompie van een letter/woord is. Laat die kind die woorde sorteer en al dieselfde letters/woorde bymekaar pas.
 Druk/skryf klanke op aparte kaartjies en speel snap met die klanke. Later kan daar van kind verwag word om elke keer die klank wat hy neersit te benoem.
 Visvang met klanke. Plak magneet aan kaartjies met klanke en gebruik 'n stok en tou met 'n magneet aan. Laat weereens eerste al dieselfde klanke sorteer, daarna kan gevra word vir 'n spesifieke klank, daarna kan kind enige klanke vang en vir jou sê watter klank hy gevang het.
 Maak flitskaarte met alfabetklanke op twee verskillende kleure karton/papier. Speel 'memory game' daarmee - draai kaarte om dat nie letters sien nie en elkeen kry 'n beurt om twee verskillende kleure kaarte om te draai. As dit dieselfde letter is kan jy die kaartjies hou anders moet jy dit op dieselfde plekke terug draai. Sê telkens watter letter daar op die kaarte is.
 Laat kind letters/woorde in 'n vlak bord/skinkbord met sout of sand skryf om meer sensoriese terugvoer te kry.
 Speel "Ek sien met my kleine ogies..." 'n spesifieke letter of woord. Laat die kind die letter of woord soek. Later kan hy voorwerp wat met daardie letter begin soek.
 Laat hom lettertjies soek en bou so 'n woord. Byvoorbeeld, soek 'n 't' - sit dit neer. Soek 'n 'a' - sit dit langs die 't'. Soek 'n 's' - sit dit langs die 'a'. Klank die woord. Laat kind dit nou vinniger klank sodat hy dit meer vloeiend kan uitspreek.
 Pak kaartjies met prentjies uit. Wys 'n letter aan die kind en vra dat hy die letter benoem en dan 'n prentjie soek wat met daardie letter begin.
 Gebruik weer kaartjies met prentjies op. Laat die kind sê wat die prentjie is en dan watter letter hoor hy eerste in die woord. Later kan gevra word wat is die laaste en middelste letters van die woord.
 Skryf 'n klomp 'b' en 'd' klanke in 'n ry. Byvoorbeeld: b d d b d b b b d d d b d b d d d b d b b d d b d b.
Laat u kind die 'b' onderstreep en die 'd' omkring soder om sy hand op te lig. Vorm sodoende 'n patroon.
 Gee letters vir kind byvoorbeeld 'n 't','s' en 'a' en laat kind die letters skommel om 'n woord te vorm - 'tas'.
 Wys letters en later woord aan kind. Maak dit toe en laat kind dit naskryf. Begin by letters, daarna sigwoorde/twee- & drie letter woorde ('n, op, die ens.), daarna kan langer woorde gebruik word.
 Knip woordjies uit en skommel; vra kind om spesifieke woord te soek en vir jou te gee. Vir afwisseling kan 'n potlood met prestiek agterop gebruik word om woorde mee aan te gee.
 Vereenvoudig 30 seconds of pictionary. Druk kaartjies met eenvoudige woorde. Laat kind verduidelik wat die woord op sy kaartjie is sonder om die woord te sê (30 seconds) of laat u kind 'n prentjie teken van die woord (pictionary).
 Maak storieboek oop. Laat u kind woord op een bladsy lees en vra dan om vinnig woord op 'n ander bladsy langsaan te lees.
 Gebruik strokiesprent soos Bollie. Lees storie saam met kind, knip dit uit, laat kind prentjies weer reg rangskik en self storie lees.
 Aangepaste hangman. Skryf 'n kort woord. Laat kind raai watter letters in die woord is. Maak strepies vir die hoeveelheid letters wat daar in die woord is. Sê vir hom op watter strepie letter kom die letter (byvoorbeeld 2de strepie) as hy reg geraai het en hy kan dan die letter op die regte strepie neerskryf. 
 Begin 'n klankeboek. Op die eerste helfde van die bladsy moet hy die letter soveel as moontlik kere skryf en elke keer die letter se naam sê. Tweedens kan jy enige paragraaf inplak en hy moet daardie spesifieke letter onderstreep orals waar hy dit sien in die leesstuk, daarna kan hy woorde uitknip wat met daardie letter begin en dit inplak, volgende kan hy prentjies uitknip wat met daardie letter begin en laastens self woorde neerskryf wat met die letter begin.
Kinders leer deur rolmodelle. Dus is dit belangrik dat jy steeds 'n genotvolle tydjie maak om vir jou kind te lees, sodoende assosieer hy lees met genot en nie net met vrees vir sy onvermoë nie.
 Geleidelik kan u kind dan betrek word in jul lees tyd en gevra word om byvoorbeeld 'n paragraaf saam met jou te lees. Jy gaan 'n klein bietjie vinniger lees as jou kind sodat hy jou met gemak kan navolg. Daarna kan hy gevra word om byvoorbeeld 'n woord en later 'n sin self te lees, waarna jul kan afwissel dat hy een bladsy lees en jy die volgende tot hy genoeg selfvertroue het om onafhanklik te lees.
Lees is ook 'n goeie tyd om jou kind se geheue, woordeskat en verbeeldigswêreld uit te brei - so vra baie vrae en gesels met jou kind oor die storie wat jul gelees het. Vra byvoorbeeld oor die vorige dag se storie voordat jul 'n nuwe storie begin lees.

Indien u kind steeds sukkel om die vaardighede te bemeester is dit egter noodsaaklik dat jy professionele hulp verkry om sodoende te bepaal of daar enige ander faktore is wat sy ontwikkeling benadeel.

11. Jul, 2017

Midlyn Kruising Inligting & Aktiwiteite

 

 

Vraag: My kind draai haar boek heeltemal en skryf baie slordig, sy is ook geneig om haar letters om te keer soos byvoorbeeld haar 'b' en 'd'. 
Question: My child turns her book and write very untidy, she also tends to confuse her 'b' and 'd' sounds.

Daar is verskeie moontlikhede vir omkerings van letters en syfers waarvan midlyn kruising en onvoldoende ruimtelike konsepte van die redes kan wees. Omkerings is gewoonlik nog redelik aanvaarbaar tot einde graad 2, maar mens wil verkieslik al vroeër aandag daaraan begin skenk. 

1. Wat is midlyn kruising ?

Midlyn kruising is die vermoë om met die een kant van die liggaam oor die liggaam se denkbeeldige middellyn te kruis na die teenoorgestelde kant byvoorbeeld om met die regterhand ‘n voorwerp op te tel aan die linkerkant van die liggaam.

 

Elke kind beskik oor die vermoë om hul midlyn te kruis, maar sekere kinders vind dit moeilik en probeer dit dus sover as moontlik vermy.Hier volg ‘n paar moontlike tekens… 

 

2. Tekens dat ‘n kind midlyn kruising vermy.

§ Verander hande in midlyn.Tel byvoorbeeld pen aan die linkerkant op met hul linkerhand en gee dit aan na die regterhand.

§ Kind leun oor na die een kant terwyl byvoorbeeld skryf om midlyn kruising te vermy.

§ Skuif of draai papier.

§ Buig pols terwyl skryf. 

 

3. Hoekom is midlyn kruising belangrik?

Vermyding van midlyn kruising kan lei tot slordige werk, meer inspanning moet gebruik word om aktiwiteite te voltooi wat motivering & energievlakke benadeel en sodoende kan lei tot ‘n stadiger werkstempo.Dit gee ook aanleiding tot onnatuurlike sitposture tydens tafelaktiwiteite.Dit word ook geassosieer met ‘n geneigdheid om van regs na links te lees en te werk en speel dus ook in samewerking met ruimtelike verhoudings (Die vermoë van die kind om die posisie van twee of meer voorwerpe in verhouding tot mekaar waar te neem (3D, 2D)) ‘n rol by omkerings van letters en syfers. 

 

4. Moontlike aktiwiteite wat midlyn kruising kan verbeter.

  • Plaas voorwerpe aan die kind se nie-dominante kant sodat midlyn kruising aangemoedig word plaas bv inkleurkryte aan linkerkant en kind moet dit met haar regterhand vat.

 

  • Verf op ‘n groot stuk papier .Papier moet groot genoeg wees dat die kind moet strek om orals te verf.Doen verkieslik in ‘n viervoet kniel posisie waar die kind op een hand steun en met die ander hand verf.

 

  • Scoop met bal .Laat kind scoop met albei hande vashou en gooi bal na verskillende kante van die kind se liggaam.Scoop kan ook self gemaak word deur 2l bottel so te sny.

 

 

 

  • Lazy 8 : Teken groot horisontale 8 met nie-permanente merker op groot spieël of venster of op ‘n groot papier.
  • Infinity walk: Loop daagliks in die vorm van ‘n 8 vir 10 minute. (Meer inligting beskikbaar)

 

  • Simon sê : Gebruik bewegings wat midlyn kruising aanmoedig byvoorbeeld raak linkerskouer met regterhand.

 

  • Raak jou …: Kind moet elke keer die liggaamsdeel aanraak met beide hande oorkruis so bv “Raak jou ore!” Kind raak met linkerhand aan regteroor en met regterhand aan linkeroor ens.

 

  • Handeklap speletjies : Speel speletjies met rympies wat vereis dat hande oorkruis aangeraak word.

 

  • Speel Twister.

 

  • Rol: Rol na ‘n sekere punt of teen ‘n walletjie af.

 

  • Bal speletjies: Hou bal met albei hande vas en gee bal op verskillende maniere aan bv onder deur bene, links of regs om, bo-oor kop ens.

 

  • Bewegingspatrone: Sien aangehegte bladsy vir illustrasies van die bewegingspatrone:

 

Ø Spring met bene oop en dan oorkruis.

 

Ø Loop sodat bene oor kruis na die ander kant.

 

Ø Loop terwyl met regterhand aan linkerknie raak en met linkerhand aan regterknie.Kombineer dit met ander vaardighede soos sê die alfabet terwyl so loop, tel agteruit vanaf 50, tel in 2’s ens. elke keer as hand aan knie raak.

 

Ø Rise and shine: Maak arms wyd oop terwyl diep inasem en maak dan arms toe asof hul hulself ‘n drukkie gee terwyl uitasem.

 

Ø Neck rotator: Hou lyfie reguit terwyl nek stadig draai van kant tot kant.

 

Ø Visual workout: Maak ‘n vuis met die duim in die lig & maak arm reguit. Beweeg arm van links na regs. Hou kop stil terwyl duim slegs met die oë gevolg word. Doen vyf keer en ruil dan hande.

 

Ø Mouse pad: Maak ‘n vuis met die duim in die lig & maak arm reguit. Beweeg nou die duim op en links om die linker oog en dan rondom die regteroog sodat ‘n horisontale 8 gevorm word. Hou kop stil terwyl 8 vorm slegs met die oë gevolg word. Doen vyf keer en ruil dan hande.NB! Begin ALTYD links om.

 

Ø Abs trainer: Bring regter elmboog na linkerknie en anders om.

 

Ø Trunk rotator: Lê op rug met arms wyd oop. Lig knieë op en roteer knieë van kant tot kant terwyl skouers en rug op grond bly.

 

Ø Trunk twister: Staan met bene skouerwydte uitmekaar en leun met lyfie vorentoe terwyl arms afhang. Begin om stadig van kant tot kant te roteer.

11. Jul, 2017

CRAWLING

 


Why crawling is important.

  • Crawling is part of the basic building blocks for many other skills.
  • Focussing the eyes at arm’s length helps later on to remain eye focus during reading exercises. It therefore also contribute to the development of eye-hand coordination.
  • It helps to strengthen the muscles of the shoulder girdle, which is important for the execution of fine co-ordinated activities like writing.
  • The baby’s arms and legs move in an alternative pattern in relation to one another when crawling – right leg with left arm and visa versa. This process contributes to the integration of two brain hemispheres, which is important for the mastering of many other motor skills at a later stage like bilateral integration – to tie shoelaces, do jumping jacks or the development of dominance of the hands and feet.
  • Baby learn how to move body parts separately and not as a whole.
  • Crawling encourage the crossing of the midline that is important for integration of brain functions.
  • A baby receives a lot of sensory input especially regarding touch (tactile input) through crawling.
  • Babies learn to plan new body postures and movements over, through, around objects; this is important to develop the necessary motor planning to plan more complex movements at a later stage in life.
  • Babies get to learn more about their bodies and their environment through crawling and therefore improve their body image that is necessary for the development of spatial concepts.This is later on important when reading and writing (so they don’t reverse their ‘b’ and ‘d’ as well as with mathematics.

 

Necessary motor development before crawling starts.

  • Babies can prop themselves up on their elbows in the pron position at around 6 months.
  • They can reach for objects while lying in prone.
  • Must be able to roll to one side by six months (usually from tummy to back).
  • It’s important that your baby must be able to lie on their tummy and lift their head up to develop the necessary neck- and back muscles.
  • A lot of the times babies first start to leopard crawl on their tummies or to crawl backwards before they start crawling on all four.
  • The next step if your baby can get into the four point crawling position is to sway back and forth to get the necessary felling and momentum to crawl.

 

Possible reasons why your baby doesn’t crawl.

  • Your baby’s neck- and back muscle might not be enough developed.
  • Your baby might have low muscle tone and muscles might feel ‘floppy’.
  • Baby might be unsure how to plan the movement and how to move body parts like the hips separately from the rest of the body.
  • Your baby might be sensitive to touch stimuli and might try to avoid it because crawling provides a lot of sensory input.
  • An aberrant Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex (ATNR) (when the baby turns their head to one side, the arm and leg will automatically straighten on the face side and the other arm and leg will bent) might make crawling difficult.

 

What can you do if your baby is not crawling

Remember developmental milestones are just a general indicator for development but each child’s development is unique and your child might just need more time and practice.

Consult your doctor, occupational therapist or physiotherapist to determine possible reasons if concerned.

Start with an exercise program for crawling to improve possible factors that might have a negative influence on crawling like low muscle tone.

Monitor the other development of other skills mentioned under “Why crawling is important?”

Consult with a professional in case there isn’t improvement after the exercise program for crawling or if any other problems are noted regarding your child’s general development.

Don’t use a walking ring since it might have a negative influence on the development of your baby’s hips, legs and feet that is important for weightbearing and decreases the baby’s motivation for crawling.Don’t use the walking ring for more than 10 minutes if you want to use it.

 


Recommended reading:

  • Baby Sense. Magan Faure & Ann Richardson.Available at BabaCity or Toys ‘R’ us for R120.00.
  • Toddler Sense . Ann Richardson

KRUIP OEFENINGE 

Watter oefeninge kan ek doen as my baba van 9 maande nog nie kruip nie?

Hoekom is kruip belangrik?

  • Kruip lê die grondslag vir baie ander vaardighede. 
  • Deur gewig te dra om hul hande ontwikkel hulle stabiliteit in hul skouers en die boë van hul handjies.Dit is belangrik vir latere fyn motoriese vaardighede soos om ‘n potlood reg vas te hou.
  • Deur te kruip word hul blootgestel aan ‘n klomp insette en sensoriese ervarings deur hul hande en selfs hul hele lyfie.Daarom vermy babas wat nie van aanraking hou of tas-defensief is dit soms om te kruip.
  • Deur te kruip begin hul verskillende liggaamsposisies en bewegings beplan wat belangrik is vir die ontwikkeling van motoriese beplanning wat noodsaaklik is vir die aanleer van nuwe vaardighede byvoorbeeld om te huppel of fiets te ry.
  • Kruip leer hul ook van hul liggaam en ook van hul omgewing en hul ontwikkel so ‘n ruimtelike bewustheid.Dit is belangrik om later te kan lees, dit help om ‘b’ en ‘d’ omkerings te voorkom, om te skryf en wiskunde te doen.
  • Om te kruip vereis gekoördineerde gebruik van albei kante van die liggaam en bevorder dus die ontwikkeling van die linker- en regterbrein asoook die verbinding daartussen wat belangrik is vir latere koördinasie en die gesamentlike gebruik van beide kante van die liggaam byvoorbeeld om skoenveters vas te maak.

 

Motoriese ontwikkeling noodsaaklik vir kruip.

  • Rondom ses maande gebruik hul hul elmboë om hulself op te stoot in die maagliggende posisie.
  • Hul kan ook reik na voorwerpe terwyl maagliggend lê.
  • Teen ses maande behoort hul in een rigting te kan omrol (gewoonlik van hul maag af op sy rug).
  • Dis belangrik dat baba op hul maag kan lê en hul kop oplig want sodoende ontwikkel hul rugspiere wat noodsaaklik is vir kruip.
  • Babas begin baie keer eers op hul maag te seil of kruip baie keer eers agteruit voordat hulle begin om vorentoe te beweeg.
  • As baba in die hande viervoet kruipposisie kan kom is dit belangrik dat hul volgende kan begin heen en weer wieg want dit gee hul die gevoel en momentum om te begin vorentoe kruip.

 

Moontlike redes waarom baba nie kan kruip nie.

  • Baba se nek- en rug spiere is moontlik nog nie sterk genoeg nie.
  • Baba kan moontlik ‘n lae spiertonus hê en kan ‘floppy’ voorkom en dus nie hul liggaamsgewig dra nie.
  • Baba nog onseker hoe om hul liggaamsdele byvoorbeeld heupe afsonderlik van die res van hul lyfie te beweeg.
  • Babas wat nie van aanraking hou nie of tas-defensief is vermy dit soms om te kruip omdat kruip hul te veel sensoriese/tas ervarings bied.
  • Sommige babas het egter net meer tyd en aanmoediging nodig voordat hul begin kruip.

 

Moontlike oefeninge om kruip te bevorder.

 

Bevorder spiertonus en versterk nek-, maag- en rugspiere

  • Laat baba op haar rug lê en neem baba se enkels in elke hand, laat baba fietstrap. As baba nog nie soepel genoeg is nie, sal die bewegings rukkerig wees, maar met oefening raak dit ritmies .
  • Hou albei enkels in een hand, ander hand druk die skouers saggies teen die grond; buig knieë op en beweeg die kniëe van een kant na die ander kant. Kniëe kan ook in ‘n sirkel beweeg word en onthou om dit na die ander kant toe ook te doen.
  • Laat baba op jou skoot sit en vir jou kyk. Hou baba mooi vas en hop haar versigtig op jou skoot.Praat met baba / sing liedjie terwyl hop.
  • Plaas jou baba op haar rug en neem jou baba agter haar skouers en trek haar stadig na die sitposisie. Moenie ondersteuning bied aan baba se nek nie. Hou deurentyd oogkontak met jou baba.Jou baba moet haar nek kan opbring en haar nek moet nie agteroor val nie.Laat sak baba weer terug in die rugliggende posisie.
  • Plaas jou baba op haar rug en moedig haar aan om met haar hande en voete te speel, ditversterk die maagspiertjies. ‘n Lint kan byvoorbeeld liggies aan haar voet vasgemaak word.Ma moet deurentyd teenwoordig wees. 
  • Moedig baba aan om om te rol. Plaas baba op haar rug en skud iets soos sleutels langs die baba.Wag dat baba haar kop draai en sal gewoonlik omrol om voorwerp te probeer kry.As baba sukkel om te rol: plaas haar op haar rug en lig haar linker been tot teen haar bors en druk die been oor na regs in ‘n wye sirkel.Die baba sal dan haar arm oor bring en op haar maag draai of lig haar regter skouer en gedeeltelik heup om regterskouer vorentoe te bring.Plaas ‘n speelding aan die kant waarna baba rol.Moenie been of arm te hard druk/hanteer nie.
  • Babas wat gewoond daaraan is om op hulle magies te lê, sal gouer begin kruip, omdat hulle rug- en nekspiere sterker sal wees.So plaas baba dus dikwels in maagliggende posisie met speelgoed voor hul.Die speelgoed kan geleidelik klein bietjies verder neergeplaas word of maak ‘n tou aan die speelding vas sodat hul dit self nader kan trek.
  • Indien baba nie van die posisie hou nie kan hul vir korter tydjies maar meer gereeld in maagliggende posisie geplaas word.Of ma kan in ‘n skuins sit-lê posisie it mt die baba maagliggend op haar lyf. Gesels of sing vir jou baba.
  • Baba kan ook in maagliggende posisie gedra word, soos “vliegtuigie” om hula an te moedig om hul kop op te lig en sodoende nek en rugspiere te versterk.
  • Speel ‘n variasie van vliegtuigie: lê op jou rug met jou knieë opgetrek en sit haar op haar magie op jou maermerries terwyl jy haar hande vashou.
  • As baba nie haarself op haar elmboë kan oplig in maagliggende posisie nie, kan ouer haar arms so neerplaas dat sy haarself daarop kan ondersteun of sit aanvanklik ‘n opgerolde handdoek onder hul borsie met hul arms oor die handdoek om sodoende ondersteunde maagliggende posisie te bewerk. 

Gee geleentheid vir inoefening van kruipposisie

  • Ma hou die baba onder haar bors vas (entjie van die grond/ laat rus baba se bene op jou bene) en laat haar gewig dra op haar arms.Sit speelding op die mat voor babaen baba moet dit optel met een hand terwyl op die ander hand gewig dra of sit ‘n paar kussings op mekaar en laat baba dwars oor die kussings lê. Kussings moet net hoog genoeg wees sodat baba se hande en kniëe aan die vloer kan raak. Sit ‘n speelding voor hom neer.
  • Jy kan ook op vloer sit met jou bene reguit voor jou en jou baba oor jou bene plaas in ‘n kruipposisie, dus hande een kant op die grond en knieë aan die ander kant gebuig in die kruipposisie.Druk ferm maar nie te hard op haar skouers terwyl haar hande plat op die grond is en op haar heupe afwaarts terwyl haar knieë in kruipposisie is.Jy kan haar ook so stadig vorentoe en agter toe wieg om die kruip beweging na te boots.
  • Jy kan ook van ‘n groter handdoek gebruik maak om op te rol en baba dan in bogenoemde kruipposisie (soos oor jou bene) plaas.Dit versterk solank hul skouerstabiliteit en gee hul ‘n aanvoeling vir die kruipposisie.
  • Plaas klein handdoek onder baba se maag en tel punte van die handdoek versigting 'n entjie van die grond af op sodat baba hande viervoet kan staan.Sit ‘n speelding voor baba neer en jykan baba liggies vorentoe en agtertoe wieg.
  • Wanneer baba sterk kruip, kan jy vir haar ‘n hindernisbaan bou. Laat baba deur tonnels en oor goed in die tuin klim. 

Wat van ‘n loopring?

  • Loopringe word oor die algemeen gebruik gedurende die tydperk waarin jou baba haar vaardighede behoort te ontwikkel wat sy moet gebruik om te kruip.Dit strem dus die ontwikkeling en verminder ook hul motivering om te wil kruip omdat die loopring haar bring waar sy wil wees.
  • Die ondersteunende staanposisie het ook ‘n negatiewe uitwerking op die ontwikkeling van die heupe, bene en voete as gewigdraende ledemate.
  • As jy wel ‘n loopring wil gebruik moet dit nie vir langer as 10 minute per dag gebruik word nie.

 

Moontlike leesstof:

  • Koester jou baba.Magan Faure & Ann Richardson.Beskikbaar by babawinkels soos Baba City of Toys ‘R’ us.

 Onthou om oefeninge nie te oordoen nie en baba sodoende oor te stimuleer nie.Maak eerder gebruik van meer maar korter periodes. 
 Ontwikkelingsmylpale is slegs ‘n gemiddelde aanduiding van ontwikkeling, sommige kinders benodig slegs meer tyd en aandag.

11. Jul, 2017

ONTWIKKELING VAN ROL BY BABAS

Babas begin gewoonlik rondom 3 maande van hul sy na hul rug toe te rol, waarna hul gewoonlik rondom 4 - 6 maande van hul maag na hul rug rol en tussen 6 – 7 maande van hul rug na hul maag kan omrol.

 

Baie keer begin die rolbeweging “per ongeluk” terwyl baba besig was met ander beweging byvoorbeeld as baba in maagliggend hom opstoot op sy elmboë en reik na voorwerp en dan per ongeluk op sy rug omrol. Anders sal baba byvoorbeeld op sy rug lê en sy tone vashou en sy balans verloor en dan op sy sy beland.Hierdie toevallige omrol is gewoonlik die begin van ‘n belangrike mylpaal.

 


NOODSAAKLIKE VAARDIGHEDE VIR ROL

Die meeste van die baba se primitiewe reflekse begin verdwyn rondom die ouderdom en duskan baba vryliker beweeg en hul omgewing verken.Baba kan byvoorbeeld begin om sy hande na die middel te beweeg en sodoende begin koördinasie van die twee kante van die liggaam ontwikkel. 

Baba word nou gewoonlik maklik visueel gestimuleer & toon dus die nodige motivering om ‘n voorwerp visueel te volg en daarna te reik. 

Spiertonus (spanning in spiere tydens rus) is belangrik & baba moet dus nie te ‘floppy’ of te styf (spasties) voorkom nie. 

Dit is belangrik dat baba genoeg tyd op hul magie sal deurbring om hul rug- en nekspiere te ontwikkel en sodoende noodsaaklike kopkontrole te ontwikkel.

 


HOEKOM IS ROL BELANGRIK

Jou baba ontwikkel hul nek, rug, arm en beenspiere terwyl hul oefen om te rol en hul ontwikkel dus dieselfde spiere wat weer belangrik is vir ander ontwikkelingsmylpale soos kruip en loop. 

Deur te rol word hul blootgestel aan ‘n klomp insette en sensoriese ervarings byvoorbeeld tas- en ook vestibulêre/beweging stimulasie. 

Babas leer om hul lyfie te draai en te roteer en sodoende om hul liggaamsdele afsonderlik te beweeg byvoorbeeld hul bolyf (skouers) en onderlyf (heupe).

 


MOONTLIKE WAARSKUWINGSTEKENS

Onthou ontwikkelingsmylpale is slegs ‘n gemiddelde aanduiding, sommige kinders benodig slegs meer tyd en aandag.Met vroeggebore babas vind ontwikkeling ook gewwonlik stadiger plaas – dus as ‘n baba een maand vroeggebore was is dit normal dat ontwikkeling ‘n maand later sal plaasvind as wat gewoonlik verwag word. 

Wanneer jou baba teen 7 maande nog geen poging aangewend het om om te rol of andersinds nie belangstelling toon in beweging nie. 

Ander moontlike waarskuwingstekens:

wWaarneembare slapheid (floppy) van geboorte af, of styfheid wat ontwikkel het.

wBeweeg nie een kant van lyfie soos die ander kant nie.

wProbeer op ses maande nog nie voorwerp bykom en gryp nie.

wAs baba na 7 maande kop draai en arm waarna hy kyk word reguit gemaak terwyl ander arm gebuig word (dus refleks nie begin integreer).

 

Bring dit onder jou pediater se aandag indien jy bekommerd is sodat hul ‘n ontwikkelingsondersoek kan doen. Andersinds kan jy ‘n afspraak maak by ‘n arbeidsterapeut of fisioterapeut.

 


MOONTLIKE AKTIWITEITE

Ø Die eerste stap is om baba se spiertonus en nek-, maag- en rugspiere te ontwikkel. 

 


Bevorder spiertonus en versterk nek-, maag- en rugspiere

  • Laat baba op haar rug lê en neem baba se enkels in elke hand, laat baba fietstrap. As baba nog nie soepel genoeg is nie, sal die bewegings rukkerig wees, maar met oefening raak dit ritmies . 
  • Hou albei enkels in een hand, ander hand druk die skouers saggies teen die grond; buig knieë op en beweeg die kniëe van een kant na die ander kant. Kniëe kan ook in ‘n sirkel beweeg word en onthou om dit na die ander kant toe ook te doen. 
  • Laat baba op jou skoot sit en vir jou kyk.Hou baba mooi vas en hop haar versigtig op jou skoot.Praat met baba / sing liedjie terwyl hop. Gebruik veskillende ritme en bewegings.
  • Plaas jou baba op haar rug en neem jou baba agter haar skouers en trek haar stadig na die sitposisie.Moenie ondersteuning bied aan baba se nek nie. Hou deurentyd oogkontak met jou baba.Jou baba moet haar nek kan opbring en haar nek moet nie agteroor val nie.Laat sak baba weer terug in die rugliggende posisie.
  • Plaas jou baba op haar rug en moedig haar aan om met haar hande en voete te speel, dit versterk die maagspiertjies. ‘n Lint kan byvoorbeeld liggies aan haar voet vasgemaak word.Ma moet deurentyd teenwoordig wees. 
  • Babas wat gewoond daaraan is om op hulle magies te lê, sal gouer begin rol en kruip, omdat hulle rug- en nekspiere sterker sal wees.So plaas baba dus dikwels in maagliggende posisie met speelgoed voor hul.Die speelgoed kan geleidelik klein bietjies verder neergeplaas word of maak ‘n tou aan die speelding vas sodat hul dit self nader kan trek.
  • Indien baba nie van die posisie hou nie kan hul vir korter tydjies maar meer gereeld in maagliggende posisie geplaas word.Of ma kan lê met die baba maagliggend op haar lyf.Gesels of sing vir jou baba.
  • Baba kan ook in maagliggende posisie gedra word, soos “vliegtuigie” om hula an te moedig om hul kop op te lig en sodoende nek en rugspiere te versterk.
  • Speel ‘n variasie van vliegtuigie: lê op jou rug met jou knieë opgetrek en sit haar op haar magie op jou maermerries terwyl jy haar hande vashou.
  • As baba nie haarself op haar elmboë kan oplig in maagliggende posisie nie, kan ouer haar arms so neerplaas dat sy haarself daarop kan ondersteun of sit aanvanklik ‘n opgerolde handdoek onder hul borsie met hul arms oor die handdoek om sodoende ondersteunde maagliggende posisie te bewerk.

 

Inoefening van rol

Ø Onthou om beweging na beide kante te doen

  • Moedig baba byvoorbeeld tydens doekomruiltyd aan om om te rol deur rolbewegings te gebruik byvoorbeeld buig bene effens, rol hom op sy sy, sit die doek onder hom en rol hom terug.Onthou om beweging na beide kante te doen.
  • Rol baba toe en weer oop in ‘n kombers.Onthou om beweging na beide kante te doen.
  • Maag na rug: Plaas baba op magie en beweeg speelding voor baba, beweeg nou speelding na een kant sodat baba sy kop en skouers in dieselfde rigting beweeg.Moedig hom aan om sywaarts na speelding te reik en beweeg nou stadig die speelding opwaarts sodat hy sy lyfie na die kant draai tot hy omrol op rug.Indien dit nie werk, help baba deur sy skouer liggies na agter te beweeg tot begin omrol.Onthou om beweging na beide kante te doen.
  • Rug na maag:Plaas baba op sy rug en skud iets soos sleutels/ speelding langs die baba.Wag dat baba haar kop draai en begin reik na voorwerp.Beweeg speelding al hoe verder.Baba sal gewoonlik omrol om voorwerp te probeer kry.As baba sukkel om te rol: plaas hom op sy rug en lig sy linker been tot teen sy bors en druk die been oor na regs in ‘n wye sirkel.Die baba sal dan sy arm oor bring en op sy maag draai.Plaas ‘n speelding aan die kant waarna baba rol.Moenie been of arm te hard druk/hanteer nie. Onthou om beweging na beide kante te doen.

Moontlike bronne: Koester jou baba. Megan Faure & Ann Richardson